3 Rules to write out Electronic Configuration using Quantum Model

In this JC1 webinar we want to learn how to write out electronic configuration using Quantum Model.

There are 3 rules that we can use.

1. Aufbau Principle

Electrons are first placed in the orbital of the lowest energy, then the orbital of the next lowest energy and so on.

This idea is exactly the same as Bohr's Model, where we fill electrons to the first shell first which has the lowest energy, then the second shell, and so on.

The distance from the nucleus and energy level of subshells from principle quantum shells n=1 to n=4 are shown below:

3 rules electronic config quantum model energy level of subshells

The subshells in increasing energy and order of filling electrons will therefore be:

1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p ...

Notice 4s subshell is more stable or closer to the nucleus than 3d subshell when empty.

Hence we add electrons to 4s subshell first, then to 3d subshell.

We can also determine the maximum number of electrons each subshell can hold.

3 rules electronic config quantum model max no of electrons in each subshell

- s subshell with 1 orbital can hold 2 electrons
- p subshell with 3 orbitals can hold 6 electrons
- d subshell with 5 orbitals can hold 10 electrons

2. Pauli Exclusion Principle

Each orbital can only hold a maximum of 2 electrons.

If there are 2 electrons in the same orbital, they must have opposite spins.

So these are the allowed and not allowed configurations we can have for an orbital.

3 rules electronic config quantum model pauli exclusion principle allowed and not allowed

3. Hund's Rule

Electrons are added to orbitals in a subshell singly and with parallel spins before orbitals are occupied in pairs.

Using p subshell as an example, the first electron can be placed in the first orbital with spin up.

3 rules electronic config quantum model hunds rule 2p1

Second electron should be placed in another empty orbital with the same spin as the first one to minimise repulsion.

3 rules electronic config quantum model hunds rule 2p2

Third electron should be placed in the last empty orbital with same spin.

3 rules electronic config quantum model hunds rule 2p3

Fourth electron now has to be paired with another electron in the first orbital so it has to be spin down or of opposite spin.

3 rules electronic config quantum model hunds rule 2p4

Fifth electron will go to the second orbital with spin down.

3 rules electronic config quantum model hunds rule 2p5

Finally the sixth electron will go to the third orbital with spin down.

3 rules electronic config quantum model hunds rule 2p6

A combination of these 3 rules will allow us to write out electronic configurations of atoms or ions using the Quantum Model.

Topic: Atomic Structure, Physical Chemistry, A Level Chemistry, Singapore

Back to other previous Zoom Webinar Video Lessons.

Found this A Level Chemistry video useful?

Please LIKE this video and SHARE it with your friends!

Join my 8000+ subscribers on my YouTube Channel for new A Level Chemistry video lessons every week.

Check out other A Level Chemistry Video Lessons here!

Need an experienced tutor to make Chemistry simpler for you?

Do consider signing up for my JC Chemistry Tuition classes at Bishan, weekly LIVE webinars or on-demand video lessons!