Carbonyl Compounds Reactions, Aldehyde Reactions, Ketone Reactions - Organic Chemistry

In this video we go through the 6 Must-Know Aldehyde reactions and 4 Must-Know Ketone reactions.

Must-Know Aldehyde Reactions

1. Oxidation of aldehye to form carboxylic acid using potassium manganate (VII) or potassium dichromate (VI) in dilute sulphuric acid, heat or reflux

oxidation of aldehyde to form carboxylic acid

2. Reduction of aldehyde to primary alcohol using one of the following reagents and conditions:

a. aqueous sodium boron hydride at room temperature

b. hydrogen in platinium catalyst, heat

c. lithium aluminium hydride in dry ether followed by water at room temperature

reduction of aldehyde to form primary alcohol

3. Nucleophilic addition of aldehydes to form cyanohydrin using HCN (reagent not mentioned in video and screenshot) in trace NaOH or trace NaCN at 10 to 20 degree celsius.

nucleophilic addition of aldehyde to form cyanohydrin

4. Condensation of aldehyde with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine or 2,4-DNPH at room temperature to form orange precipitate

condensation of aldehyde to form orange precipitate

5. Mild oxidation of aldehyde with Fehling's Solution, warm, to form reddish brown precipitate

oxidation of aldehyde with fehlings solution

6. Mild oxidation of aldehyde with Tollen's Reagent, warm to form silver mirror

oxidation of aldehyde with tollens reagent

Must-Know Ketone Reactions

1. Reduction of ketone to secondary alcohol using one of the following reagents and conditions:

a. aqueous sodium boron hydride at room temperature

b. hydrogen in platinium catalyst, heat

c. lithium aluminium hydride in dry ether followed by water at room temperature

reduction of ketone to form secondary alcohol

2. Nucleophilic addition of ketones to form cyanohydrin using HCN (reagent not mentioned in video and screenshot) in trace NaOH or trace NaCN at 10 to 20 degree celsius.

nucleophilic addition of ketone to form cyanohydrin

3. Condensation of ketones with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine or 2,4-DNPH at room temperature to form orange precipitate

condensation of ketone to form orange ppt

Memorising the reagents and conditions for these carbonyl compound reactions is an integral part of Organic Chemistry, so I've added a short memory test.

Let's see if you can remember all of them!

Topic: Carbonyl Compounds, Organic Chemistry, A Level Chemistry, Singapore

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