Carboxylic Acid Reactions, Acyl Chloride Reactions, Ester Reactions - Organic Chemistry

In this video we go through the 4 Must-Know Carboxylic Acid reactions, 4 Must-Know Acyl Chloride reactions and 3 Must-Know Ester reactions.

Must-Know Carboxylic Acid Reaction:

1. Neutralisation reaction of carboxylic acid to form carboxylate ion using sodium metal, sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate

neutralisation of carboxylic acid to form carboxylate

2. Esterification reaction with alcohol to form esters using concentrated sulphuric acid, heat under reflux

esterification between carboxylic acid and alcohol to form esters

3. Nucleophilic substitution of carboxylic acid to form acid chloride using anhydrous PCl5 or SOCl2 at room temperature

nucleophilic substitution of carboxylic acid to form acid chloride

4. Reduction of carboxylic acid to form primary alcohol using lithium aluminium hydride in dry ether, followed by water at room temperature

reduction of carboxylic acid to form primary alcohol

Must-Know Acyl Chloride Reaction:

1. Hydrolysis of acyl chloride to form carboxylic acids using water at room temperature

hydrolysis of acid chloride to form carboxylic acid

2. Esterification of acid chloride with alcohol to form esters at room temperature

esterification of acyl chloride and alcohol to form ester

3. Esterification of acyl chloride with phenol to form phenyl ester using aqueous NaOH at room temperature

esterification between acid chloride and phenol to form phenyl ester

4. Condensation of acyl chloride to form amide using concentrated ammonia or amine at room temperature

condensation of acid chloride to form amide

Must-Know Ester Reactions:

1. Acidic hydrolysis of ester to form carboxylic acid and alcohol using dilute sulphuric acid, heat or reflux

acidic hydrolysis of ester to form carboxylic acid and alcohol

2. Alkaline hydrolysis of ester to form salt of carboxylic acid and alcohol using dilute sodium hydroxide, heat or reflux

alkaline hydrolysis of esters

3. Reduction of esters to form alcohols using lithium aluminium hydride in dry ether, followed by water at room temperature

reduction of esters to form alcohols

Memorising the reagents and conditions for these carboxylic acid reactions and acid derivatives reactions is an integral part of Organic Chemistry, so I've added a short memory test.

Let's see if you can remember all of them!

Topic: Carboxylic Acid and Derivatives, Organic Chemistry, A Level Chemistry, Singapore

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