Carboxylic Acid Reactions, Acyl Chloride Reactions, Ester Reactions - Organic Chemistry
In this video we go through the 4 Must-Know Carboxylic Acid reactions, 4 Must-Know Acyl Chloride reactions and 3 Must-Know Ester reactions.
Must-Know Carboxylic Acid Reaction:
1. Neutralisation reaction of carboxylic acid to form carboxylate ion using sodium metal, sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate
2. Esterification reaction with alcohol to form esters using concentrated sulphuric acid, heat under reflux
3. Nucleophilic substitution of carboxylic acid to form acid chloride using anhydrous PCl5 or SOCl2 at room temperature
4. Reduction of carboxylic acid to form primary alcohol using lithium aluminium hydride in dry ether, followed by water at room temperature
Must-Know Acyl Chloride Reaction:
1. Hydrolysis of acyl chloride to form carboxylic acids using water at room temperature
2. Esterification of acid chloride with alcohol to form esters at room temperature
3. Esterification of acyl chloride with phenol to form phenyl ester using aqueous NaOH at room temperature
4. Condensation of acyl chloride to form amide using concentrated ammonia or amine at room temperature
Must-Know Ester Reactions:
1. Acidic hydrolysis of ester to form carboxylic acid and alcohol using dilute sulphuric acid, heat or reflux
2. Alkaline hydrolysis of ester to form salt of carboxylic acid and alcohol using dilute sodium hydroxide, heat or reflux
3. Reduction of esters to form alcohols using lithium aluminium hydride in dry ether, followed by water at room temperature
Memorising the reagents and conditions for these carboxylic acid reactions and acid derivatives reactions is an integral part of Organic Chemistry, so I've added a short memory test.
Let's see if you can remember all of them!
Topic: Carboxylic Acid and Derivatives, Organic Chemistry, A Level Chemistry, Singapore
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