Halogenoalkane Reactions, Alkyl Halide Reactions, Nitrile Reactions - Organic Chemistry
In this video we go through the 4 Must-Know Reactions of AlkylHalides or Halogenoalkanes and 3 Must-Know Reactions of Nitriles.
Must-Know Halogenoalkane Reactions
1. Elimination or dehydrohalogenation of alkylhalide to form alkene using KOH in ethanol, heat or reflux
2. Nucleophilic substitution of halogenoalkane to form alcohol using aqueous NaOH, heat or reflux
3. Nucleophilic substitution to form amine using excess ammonia in ethanol, heat in sealed tube
4. Nucleophilic substitution to form nitrile using NaCN in ethanol, heat or reflux
Must-Know Nitrile Reactions
1. Reduction of nitrile to form primary amine using either of the following reagents and conditions:
a. Hydrogen in platinium catalyst, heat
b. lithium aluminium hydride in dry ether followed by water at room temperature
2. Acidic hydrolysis of nitrile using dilute sulphuric acid, heat or reflux to form carboxylic acid
3. Alkaline hydrolysis of nitrile using dilute NaOH, heat or reflux to form salt of carboxylic acid
Memorising the reagents and conditions for these alkylhalide reactions is an integral part of Organic Chemistry, so I've added 2 short memory tests.
Let's see if you can remember all of them!
Topic: AlkylHalides (Halogenoalkanes), Organic Chemistry, A Level Chemistry, Singapore
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