Halogenoalkane Reactions, Alkyl Halide Reactions, Nitrile Reactions - Organic Chemistry

In this video we go through the 4 Must-Know Reactions of AlkylHalides or Halogenoalkanes and 3 Must-Know Reactions of Nitriles.

Must-Know Halogenoalkane Reactions

1. Elimination or dehydrohalogenation of alkylhalide to form alkene using KOH in ethanol, heat or reflux 

 elimination of halogenoalkane to form alkene

2. Nucleophilic substitution of halogenoalkane to form alcohol using aqueous NaOH, heat or reflux

 nucleophilic substitution of alkylhalide to form alcohol

3. Nucleophilic substitution to form amine using excess ammonia in ethanol, heat in sealed tube

nucleophilic substitution of alkylhalide to form amine

4. Nucleophilic substitution to form nitrile using NaCN in ethanol, heat or reflux 

nucleophilic substitution of alkylhalide to form nitrile

Must-Know Nitrile Reactions

1. Reduction of nitrile to form primary amine using either of the following reagents and conditions:

a. Hydrogen in platinium catalyst, heat

b. lithium aluminium hydride in dry ether followed by water at room temperature 

reduction of nitrile to form primary amine

2. Acidic hydrolysis of nitrile using dilute sulphuric acid, heat or reflux to form carboxylic acid

acidic hydrolysis of nitrile to form carboxylic acid

3. Alkaline hydrolysis of nitrile using dilute NaOH, heat or reflux to form salt of carboxylic acid

alkaline hydrolysis of nitrile to form salt of carboxylic acid

Memorising the reagents and conditions for these alkylhalide reactions is an integral part of Organic Chemistry, so I've added 2 short memory tests.

Let's see if you can remember all of them!

Topic: AlkylHalides (Halogenoalkanes), Organic Chemistry, A Level Chemistry, Singapore

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