New Method for Storing and Retrieving Hydrogen
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Here are 9 recent discoveries:
1. A New Method for Storing and Retrieving Hydrogen
Scientists at RIKEN CEMS in Japan have found a compound that could revolutionize the way ammonia is stored.
The compound uses a chemical reaction to store ammonia safely and easily, but also the important hydrogen it carries.
Hydrogen is a promising energy source, but it is difficult to store and transport.
A new method has been developed that could make hydrogen-based energy more practical and widespread.
The method involves storing hydrogen in ammonia molecules, which can then be easily extracted as needed.
Ammonia (NH3) is a good candidate for storing hydrogen because it contains three hydrogen atoms per molecule.
The research team reports the discovery of a perovskite compound, a material with a distinctive repetitive crystal structure that stores ammonia easily and allows complete retrieval at low temperatures.
In the perovskite ethylammonium lead iodide (CH3CH2NH3PbI3), its one-dimensional columnar structure reacts with ammonia at room temperature and pressure to form a two-dimensional layered structure and stores ammonia within the layered structure.
Only gentle heating at 50 degrees Celsius under vacuum is required to extract the ammonia.
The perovskite can be reused for repeated storage and extraction of ammonia.
The change in colour from yellow one-dimensional structure to white two-dimensional structure after reaction with ammonia also means the amount of ammonia stored can be determined based on colour based sensors.
The method is safe, easy, and affordable, which could make hydrogen-based energy more practical and widespread.
It could also be used to store hydrogen for use in fuel cells, which are devices that convert hydrogen and oxygen into electricity.
The potential benefits of this new method are enormous.
It could help us to reduce our reliance on fossil fuels, improve air quality, create new jobs in the hydrogen economy and make hydrogen-powered cars and other vehicles more feasible.
The development of this new method is a significant step forward in the development of hydrogen-based energy.
It could help us to create a cleaner, more sustainable future.
Researchers discover safe, easy, and affordable way to store and retrieve hydrogen:
2. Tear-Resistant Rubber Could Make Tires Tougher
Tires are an essential part of any vehicle, but they are also vulnerable to tears and punctures.
This can be a major safety hazard, as well as a costly inconvenience.
A new study published in the journal Science has found a way to make rubber more tear-resistant.
The researchers from Duke University developed a new type of rubber that contains weak points along its molecular chains.
These weak points allow the rubber to tear in a controlled way, rather than in a sudden, catastrophic way.
The new rubber is made by adding a special type of molecule to the rubber.
These molecules, called "cross-linkers," form weak bonds between the molecular chains in the rubber.
When the rubber is stressed, these weak bonds break instead of the polymers in rubber, allowing the rubber to be much more tear-resistant than traditional rubber.
In tests, the new rubber was able to withstand up to 10 times more force before tearing than traditional rubber.
The new rubber could be used to make tires that are more durable and less likely to tear.
This could help to improve safety and reduce the number of accidents caused by tire failures.
The new rubber could also help to reduce the amount of plastic pollution in the environment.
Tires are a major source of microplastic pollution, as they release tiny particles of rubber and plastic polymers when they wear down.
The new rubber could be designed to be more wear-resistant, which could help to reduce the amount of microplastic pollution that is released into the environment.
The development of the new rubber is a promising step forward in the development of more sustainable and environmentally friendly materials.
Tear-resistant rubbery materials could pave the way for tougher tires:
3. Researchers Study How Substituents Affect Anti-Aromatic Compounds
Aromatic compounds are a class of molecules that have a special stability due to their cyclic structure and delocalized electrons.
Anti-aromatic compounds are the opposite of aromatic compounds, and they are unstable.
Researchers at the University of Münster in Germany have been studying how substituents affect the stability of anti-aromatic compounds.
They found that certain substituents can stabilize anti-aromatic compounds, while other substituents destabilize them.
The researchers studied a series of anti-aromatic compounds with different substituents.
They found that the substituents that stabilize anti-aromatic compounds tend to be electron-withdrawing groups.
These groups pull electrons away from the aromatic ring, which makes the ring more stable.
The substituents that destabilize anti-aromatic compounds tend to be electron-donating groups.
These groups push electrons towards the aromatic ring, which makes the ring less stable.
The researchers' findings could help to improve the design of new anti-aromatic compounds.
By understanding how substituents affect the stability of anti-aromatic compounds, scientists can design compounds that are more stable and have new properties.
A demonstration of substituent effects in anti-aromatic compounds:
4. Scientists develop new method for synthesizing non-canonical amino acids
A team of researchers at the University of California Santa Barbara have developed a new method for synthesizing non-canonical amino acids.
These amino acids are not found in the genes of organisms, but they are important for therapeutic purposes.
The new method merges the best of two worlds—the unique and complementary activities of enzymes and small-molecule photochemistry—to create a more efficient and cost-effective way to synthesize these amino acids.
The photochemical reaction creates a radical that is short-lived and hard to confine.
However the intermediate molecule formed by the enzymatic reaction can capture the free radical and stereoselective chemistry can be achieved.
This process shortens non-canonical amino acid synthesis by three to five steps and the researchers believe that their new method could lead to the development of new drugs and other therapeutic products.
They are currently working to optimize the method and to explore its potential applications.
Scientists unveil synergistic method for non-canonical amino acid synthesis:
5. Israeli researchers develop new, efficient method for producing green hydrogen without electrolysis
Scientists from Tel Aviv University have developed a new method for producing green hydrogen with an efficiency of over 90%.
This is significantly higher than the efficiency of traditional method of electrolysis, which typically range from 70% to 80%.
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants use sunlight to power the enzyme hydrogenase to split water into hydrogen and oxygen.
The Israeli scientists replace the sun's power with electricity, using an electrode to feed the hydrogenase mixed with a hydrogel that holds the enzyme in place.
The materials used are much cheaper as compared to electrolysis.
Hydrogen can also be produced in any kind of water which makes producing green hydrogen much cheaper.
The new method is still in the early stages of development, but the researchers believe that it has the potential to be a more efficient and cost-effective way to produce green hydrogen.
Green hydrogen is produced using renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power.
It is a clean and emissions-free fuel that could be used to power vehicles, homes, and businesses.
Israeli Researchers Produce Green Hydrogen With 90% Efficiency Without Electrolysis:
6. Renaissance artists mix egg yolk with oil paints to prevent yellowing and cracking
In the 15th century, oil paints became more popular than egg-based tempera paints.
Some Renaissance artists, such as Leonardo da Vinci and Sandro Botticelli, experimented with mixing oil and egg to create their paintings.
Scientists have recently discovered that adding egg yolk to oil paints may have helped prevent the yellowing and cracking that are common problems with oil paintings.
The medium may also have added texture and helped the paint adhere to the canvas.
The yolk's proteins, phospholipids and antioxidants helped slow paint oxidation that cause paint to yellow over time.
The yolk also created sturdy links between pigment particles, resulting in a firmer paint consistency that reduces wrinkling.
This discovery could help conservators preserve Renaissance paintings and could also inspire modern artists to experiment with new painting techniques.
Here’s why some Renaissance artists egged their oil paintings:
7. Farmers are paid to trap carbon in their soils
Farmers are being paid millions of dollars to adopt practices that will help trap carbon in their soils.
The idea is that this will help to mitigate climate change by reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
However, some scientists are concerned that the science of soil carbon sequestration is not yet well enough understood to guarantee that these practices will actually be effective.
They also worry that the focus on soil carbon could lead to farmers adopting practices that are harmful to the environment, such as overgrazing.
Some of the practices that farmers are being paid to adopt include no-till farming, cover cropping, and rotational grazing.
These practices help to increase the amount of organic matter in the soil, which can store carbon.
However, it is not yet clear how much carbon can be stored in soil over the long term, and there is some concern that the practices could have negative environmental impacts.
Ultimately, more research is needed to determine whether soil carbon sequestration is a viable way to help fight climate change.
8. Cracking salt water's curious electrical properties with AI
Water is a very good solvent, and this ability is due in part to its electrical properties.
Water molecules can align themselves in a way that opposes an electric field, which helps to prevent dissolved ions from attracting each other.
However, when salt is dissolved in water, this electrical response is weakened.
A team of physicists has used state-of-the-art computer simulations and artificial intelligence to figure out why this happens.
They found that the positive sodium ions and negative chloride ions in salt water produce localized electric fields that fully stretch and polarize individual water molecules.
This leaves the water molecules unable to stretch further to oppose an applied field.
This discovery could have implications for a variety of applications, such as improving the efficiency of desalination plants and the development of new batteries that are more efficient and have a longer lifespan.
It could also help us to better understand the behavior of other electrolyte solutions.
AI helps crack salt water’s curious electrical properties:
9. Making recyclable plastics using bacteria
Plastic waste is a major environmental problem, and most plastics cannot be recycled in a way that produces new, high-quality plastic.
However, a team of researchers at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed a new way to make plastic that is both renewable and infinitely recyclable.
The researchers engineered E. coli bacteria to produce the starting ingredients for a new type of plastic called PDK (polydiketoenamine) from glucose, a sugar that can be obtained from plants.
PDK is a strong, lightweight plastic that can be recycled over and over again without losing its properties.
The researchers also found that by replacing petrochemicals with biorenewables, they could expand the working temperature of PDK, making it suitable for a wider range of applications.
For example, PDK could be used to make car parts that can withstand high temperatures.
The researchers believe that their new method could help to reduce plastic pollution and create a more sustainable plastics industry.
They are currently working to scale up their process so that it can be used to produce PDK on a commercial scale.
Overall, this study provides a promising new approach to the production of sustainable plastics.
The researchers' method could help to reduce plastic pollution and create a more circular plastics economy.
Making Renewable, Infinitely Recyclable Plastics Using Bacteria:
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