Structural Isomerism, Constitutional Isomerism - Organic Chemistry

In this video we want to discuss Structural or Constitutional Isomerism in Organic Chemistry.

Structural or constitutional isomers have the same molecular formula but different structural formula.

They are very different compounds with different names, physical and chemical properties.

We have 3 types of structural isomerism - chain, positional and functional group isomerism.

structural isomerism constitutional isomerism types

1. Chain Isomerism

Chain isomers differ in the way the carbon chain is branched.

Using C5H12 as an example, we can have a total of 3 chain isomers:

structural isomerism chain isomer pentanestructural isomerism chain isomer 2 methylbutanestructural isomerism chain isomer 22 dimethylpropane

2. Positional Isomerism

Positional isomers have the same functional group but attached to a different carbon.

Using chloropropane as an example, the positional isomers are:

structural isomerism positional isomer 1 chloropropanestructural isomerism positional isomer 2 chloropropane

3. Functional Group Isomerism

Functional Group isomers have the same molecular formula but have different functional groups.

For instance C6H12, the two functional group isomers are hexene and cyclohexane.

structural isomerism functional group isomer hex 1 enestructural isomerism functional group isomer cyclohexane

For the detailed step-by-step discussion on the 3 different types of Structural Isomerism, check out this video!

Topic: Introduction to Organic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, A Level Chemistry, Singapore

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